Title: Double Head Studs as Ties in Concrete Walls and Columns
Author(s): Walter H. Dilger and Amin Ghali
Publication: Concrete International
Volume: 19
Issue: 6
Date: June 1, 1997
Testing of concrete walls and columns subjected to axial compression shows that double head studs used as cross ties are more effective than conventional stirrups with 90 and 180 degree hooks in confining the concrete, thus improving strength and ductility. Unlike conventional stirrups, the studs with heads sufficiently large enough to develop yield strength do not require hooks and bends which must engage the longitudinal bars. It is proposed that because of the superiority of studs in increasing strength and ductility of columns and walls, design codes should allow reduced cross-sectional areas and/or larger spacing when studs are used as cross ties.

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